Not many people I know are involved in politics. Actually, there is just this friend of mine, Arthur, a real political animal (= someone who knows a lot about and is interested in politics), who has always wanted to be a politician and he entered politics (= started to be involved in politics) at the age of 18 by joining a political party. He was a real political activist. He had been a supporter of the policy (= a set of plans or actions agreed on) of this party a long time before. Now, he’s been a member for over 10 years. A few months ago Arthur was elected (= chosen) an MP (= Member of Parliament), which is a great achievement on the political scene. I know, however, that his deepest wish is to become one of the ministers and work for the government (= cabinet).


More contexts for the new words:

  • Honesty is the best policy. (= principle, strategy)
  • He has made a brilliant career in politics.



Complete the sentences.


  1. The ministers form the c……………………….
  2. He decided to e………………………. politics at the age of 18, when he joined a party.
  3. He is a real political a………………………., always aware of what’s going on in the government.
  4. Obama was e……………………… President of the US in 2008.
  5. Susan strongly disapproves of the current government’s p………………………. on immigration.
  6. The Polish Sejm has 460 ……………………….s.
  7. Honesty is the best p……………………….




Match the sentence halves, then answer the questions.


  1. Do you approve of the current government               a. scene?
  2. What do you think of the Polish political                   b. animals?
  3. Do you have any friends who are political                 c. policies?




Let’s look at a sentence from the text in which the relative pronoun WHICH is used:

A few months ago Arthur was elected an MP, WHICH is a great achievement on the political scene.


In this sentence, WHICH does not refer to things, like in the following sentences:

I love the CD WHICH I got from you.
Where’s the flat WHICH they have bought?


Here WHICH is directly connected to things mentioned before (CD, flat), while in the very first sentence quoted today WHICH is put after a comma and actually refers to the whole clause that goes before, as if commenting on it.


Another difference is that in the sentence:

I love the CD WHICH I got from you.


WHICH can be replaced with THAT, which is not possible when WHICH comments on the clause before it.






A/ What is the current government’s policy on immigration?

B/ Well, it has become a POLITICAL FOOTBALL, so there’s lots of discussion about it.


If something becomes a political football, it is a problem that politicians from different parties argue about and try to use in order to get an advantage for themselves.






  1. If you PUT FORWARD a plan, you propose it.


The minister has put forward a new policy on education.

The proposals that you have put forward deserve serious consideration.


  1. If something RUNS OUT, it disappears.


Hopes of reaching an agreement between the parties were beginning to run out.

My patience is beginning to run out.




Complete the sentences.


  1. Many suggestions have been _ _ _ forward, but a decision is unlikely until after next year’s general election.
  2. The milk has _ _ _ out.
  3. We don’t want the higher education issue to become a political _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.





The recent developments on the Polish political scene have raised the question: is there still such a thing as ethics in politics? It seems that, in a relentless pursuit of victory and political power, the politicians have forgotten that they are human beings, and not only cogs in the political machine. Forever engaged in mudslinging and an escalating avalanche of insults, they behave like hungry and thirsty animals, anxious to achieve success. True enough, members of opposing parties do strive to be civil when seen together in public (especially during the photo sessions), but when questioned about each other in private, they no longer pretend to be amicable. Isn’t it time a little culture entered politics?





relentless – without stopping

pursuit – looking for something

a cog in the machine – a member of a large organization whose job, although necessary, makes them feel as if they are not important

mudslinging – when you say insulting or unfair things about someone, especially to try to damage their reputation

avalanche – a great amount

to strive – to try

civil– polite

amicable – friendly


download lesson





  1. cabinet
  2. enter
  3. animal
  4. elected
  5. policy
  6. MP
  7. policy




  1. c
  2. a
  3. b



  1. put
  2. run
  3. football