Books and literature
The Nobel Prize for literature…
The Nobel Prize for literature was founded (= created) in 1895 when Alfred Nobel, the Swedish inventor of dynamite, left much of his wealth to the establishment (= the process of starting and creating something) of the Nobel Prizes, including one for literature. This is an annual award to a living author from any country who has produced the most outstanding (= extremely good and impressive) work. However, it refers to a body of work than a single book. The carefully thought out opinions by the selection committees would also highlight lasting improvements in the sciences and the peace process. A wide variety of writers have won the award working in a range of fiction and non-fiction genres (= a particular style used in writing which can be recognised by certain features). Novelists, poets, dramatists and biographers writing in various languages have all received the award. To date (= up to now), surprisingly only a few women have been awarded it. In the early years the Academy chose more idealistic writers. Later on, they began awarding the prize for lasting literary value. However, many prominent ( = important and well-known)and very popular writers have not been even nominated. What is interesting, Sweden has been a prolific (= who produces a lot of books) issuer of stamps related to Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. In 2001, Sweden commemorated (= to show that you remember an important person or event by having a special ceremony) the 100th anniversary of the first Nobel Prizes awarded by issuing stamps depicting (=to describe sb or portray) Nobel. You may also be aware that the Nobel Prizes are never given out posthumously (= after their death) and there have also been cases when writers refused the award.
After reading the text decide if the statements are true of false:
The NOBEL PRIZE for Literature:
- is only for writers who are alive
- is only for writers in English
- is only for writers who sell more than a certain number of books
- is given every 2 years
- is given for a single book
- has not been accepted by all receipients
disturbing dreadful dull gripping lightweight moving
overrated tedious thought-provoking
- causing you to have deep feelings of sadness or sympathy
- very bad or unpleasant
- making you feel worried or upset
- lasting or taking too long and not interesting
- not very serious or impressive
- not interesting or exciting
- making people think seriously about a particular subject or issue
- exciting or interesting in a way that keeps your attention
- used to say that people have too high an opinion of sb/sth or put too high a value on sb/sth
ENGLISH IN USE
USED TO VS. WOULD
- What sort of books did you use to / would you read as a child?
- Did your parents use to tell you / would tell you stories about monsters who chased naughty children?
- Did you use to /would you get frightened when your parents told you about scary characters?
- Did you use to believe in ghosts?
Remember that used to + infinitive describes a past habit or state while would +infinitve describes only a past habit!
Choose the correct answer.
This is the guide devoted to places connected to literature:
- Sam Stoker used to / would take his holidays at Cuden Bay and used Ecclescrieg House nearby as an inspiration for Count Dracula’s House.
- He used to / would live in a house in Sandycove in Dublin.
- George Orwell used to / would sleep on insect-infected mattresses when he was down and out in Paris.
- Ernest Hemingway used to / would catch pigeons in the Lugenburg Gardens.
- Lewis Carroll used to / would go to Whitburn for his holidays.
- The guide provides excellent walking tours. You can start in Dorset Street, where Miller’s Court, site of the most horrific Ripper murder, used to / would be.
On a need to know basis = so that sb is told only what they need to know and only when they need to know it
Be at odds with something = be in conflict with , contradict sth
Be a book worm = be a book lover
PHRASAL VERBS CLOSE-UP
Match the sentence halves.
- When I look at photos, a. up too many memories over the years.
- I shouldn’t let bad memories eat b. at us.
- We store c. memories come flooding back.
flood back = one remembers a lot of things about an experience
eat at sb = make sb unhappy because we think too much about sth
store up = keep in the memory
- Technically, the prize awarded in Economics is not a Nobel Prize, as it was not specified in Alfred Nobel’s will. It has been nicknamed the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, and is selected by the same committee that selects the physics and chemistry prizes, but has only been awarded since 1969. It is award in memory of Alfred Nobel.
- Nomination records are sealed for fifty years, and except for „leaks” in the process, the nominees are not publicly acknowledged. Agents and publicists will often tout a person’s nomination, but until the records are unsealed fifty years later, there is no way to confirm or deny this.
- Nominations for the Nobel Prizes can only be made for living persons. However, should a person die after their nomination, they can still be awarded a Nobel Prize. This has occurred two times, most recently in 1961 when Dag Hammarskjöld, Secretary-General of the United Nations, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize posthumously, after dying in a plane crash in Africa.
- Provided that the individual is living at the time of the nomination, anyone can be nominated. Incredulously, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Joseph Stalin were all nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize!
will = testament
nicknamed = given an informal name
nominees = people nominated for the prize
acknowledged = informed
occurred = happened
incredulously = unbelievably
KEY TO EXERCISES
causing you to have deep feelings of sadness or sympathy = moving
very bad or unpleasant = dreadful
making you feel worried or upset = disturbing
lasting or taking too long and not interesting = tedious
not very serious or impressive = lightweight
not interesting or exciting = dull
making people think seriously about a particular subject or issue = thought-provoking
exciting or interesting in a way that keeps your attention =gripping
used to say that people have too high an opinion of sb/sth or put too high a value on sb/sth = overrated
This is the guide devoted to places connected to literature:
- Sam Stoker used to / would take his holidays at Cuden Bay and used Ecclescrieg House nearby as an inspiration for Count Dracula’s House
- He used to live in a house in Sandycove in Dublin
- George Orwell used to sleep on insect-infected mattresses when he was down and out in Paris
- Ernest Hemingway used to / would catch pigeons in the Lugenburg Gardens
- Lewis Carroll used to / would go to Whitburn for his holidays
- The guide provides excellent walking tours. You can start in Dorset Street, where Miller’s Court, site of the most horrific Ripper murder, used to.