Ten weeks ago Peter McDonald went on trial for murder. Last Monday the jury (= a group of people who give a verdict in court) of twelve people found him guilty of murdering his 70-year-old wife, Elisabeth.
McDonald committed the crime (= did something illegal) on a sunny day last July in their house in Palm Beach, Florida. He claims that his wife, who had been confined to a wheelchair for the past ten years of her life wanted to die, and he killed her so that she wouldn’t feel pain any longer. McDonald put a gun to her head and shot her. Later he phoned the police and told them what he had just done. The police arrested him and three days later he was charged with murder (= officially accused of murder).

During the trial there were a lot of witnesses who appeared in court in order to give evidence (= facts that help to prove something). The prosecution (= lawyers who try to prove that the accused person is guilty) called witnesses who claimed that Elizabethhad enjoyed her life. The defence (= lawyers who try to prove that the accused person is innocent) called doctors who explained that Mrs McDonald had been in great pain. The defendant (= person accused of a crime) pleaded not guilty (= said he wasn’t guilty), but the jury reached a guilty verdict.

The judge passed the sentence (= officially said what the criminal’s punishment will be) on the following day. He decided that McDonald would be sent to prison for twenty five years. This means that he will not be released from prison until he is 98 years old.



More contexts for the new words:

  • Robinson was convicted of the murder of his mother and brother (= it was proven that he was guilty of the crime).


  • She got off lightly with a fine, instead of a prison sentence (= she wasn’t punished as severely as she might have been).




Decide if the sentences are true or false.


  1. The defendant is the same as the defence lawyer.
  2. To be charged with a crime is the same as be accused of a crime.
  3. The prosecution wants to prove that the person is innocent.
  4. If you are convicted of a crime it means you are guilty.
  5. The jury usually consists of one person.
  6. A sentence is the same as a punishment.




Match the question halves. Then answer the questions.

  1. Do you know anyone who has committed
  2. Would you like to become a member of
  3. Do you think criminals who plead


a) the jury?
b) a crime?
c) guilty should get off lightly?



In this lesson we are going to discuss adverbs of purpose. These include in order to, to, for, so that and in case.

In order to and to are followed by infinitive and for is followed by –ing.

To describe a general purpose you can use to or for.

The switch is for starting the motor.
The switch is to start a motor.


To describe a specific purpose you can use only to or in order to.

Turn that switch to start the motor.


So that is usually followed by a modal verb (can, could, may, might).

We have purchased the land so that the company may expand.


In case expresses a potential purpose and is usually followed by Present Simple to talk about Present or Future or Past Simple to talk about the Past.

I’m going to leave the door open in case you come home late.
Henry left the door unlocked in case we came home late.






The man did not believe the judge would GIVE HIM A FAIR SHAKE at his trial.

If you give someone a fair shake you give the person fair treatment.






  1. If you ARE DONE FOR, it is likely that you will be punished, hurt or killed.

If the guards see us, we’re done for.


  1. When you LET SOMEONE OFF you give the person little or no punishment for what they did wrong.

I was pulled over for speeding, but I was let off with a warning.





Complete sentences with correct words:


  1. The judge didn’t ………….. me off easily.
  2. He’s unpleasant, but we have to …………. him a fair shake.
  3. We all thought we were …….…. for when the boat started to sink.








A surgeon and eight other people are on trial in central China over the case of a teenager who sold a kidney to buy an iPad and iPhone. The two-day hearing ended on Friday and judges will decide on possible guilty verdicts and sentencing soon. Defendant Yang Ji is charged with organising the illegal kidney trade in 2011. He hoped to clear his gambling debts by profiting from it. The surgeon from a provincial hospital in Yunnan Province, was paid just over $7,000 to perform the operation. The 17-year-old teenager found the offer of $4,500 for a kidney on an online chat room. Soon after he left the hospital he suffered renal failure and became ill. His kidney was sold to its recipient for around $40,000. Chinese authorities have been clamping down on the illegal trade in human organs. Police arrested 137 people last month, including many doctors.




  • renal – relating to your kidneys
  • recipient – someone who receives something
  • to clamp down on – to make an attempt to stop people doing something illegal



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Ex. 1

  1. False – defendant is accused of a crime
  2. True
  3. False – they want to prove the person is guilty
  4. True
  5. False – it is a group of people – usually 12
  6. True


Ex. 2

  1. b
  2. a
  3. c


Ex. 3

  1. let
  2. give
  3. done