Most people claim that they are honest and sincere (= true, not hypocritical). However, when asked whether they have ever lied, for example, about their age, salary or when giving their address or phone number, it turns out that they are economical with the truth (= they lie) more often than they think. Even though we tend to believe that it is morally wrong to steal something from a shop or cheat on a partner, we do not consider cheating in an exam to be unethical. Moreover, we believe that sometimes it is better to tell a white lie (= a lie told to avoid making somebody upset) than to tell the truth. We also tend to make up stories (= create them) when we need to make an excuse, for example, for not doing our homework. There are not many people who are compulsive liars (= people who lie repeatedly) but if we need to, we mislead (= give false information) or deceive (= cause to believe what is not true) others easily.
More contexts for the new words:
- The student’s excuse for being late doesn’t ring true. (= it doesn’t sound true or likely)
- They were found guilty of trying to bribe officials (= give them money or some present in order to get something from them).
Decide if the sentences are true or false:
- If you bribe somebody you break the law.
- If you are economical with the truth you are dishonest.
- A compulsive liar rarely tells the truth.
- Sincere people are unethical.
- If something doesn’t ring true it’s not true.
- If you mislead somebody, you deceive the person.
Match the question halves. Then answer the questions.
- Is it sometimes better to tell a white
- Have you ever made up
- Do you know anybody who is a
a) some story because you didn’t want to tell the truth?
b) lie or is it always better to tell the truth?
c) compulsive liar?
ENGLISH IN USE
In this lesson we are going to talk about adverbials of concession and contrast.
We use the following phrases to contrast two ideas:
but/ yet/ however/ although/even though/ despite/ in spite of
We use but and yet in the middle of the sentence.
It was raining, but we went for a walk.
It was raining, yet we went for a walk.
We usually use however at the start of a new sentence.
It was raining. However, we went for a walk.
Although and even though are followed by a subject and a verb.
Although it was raining, we went for a walk.
Even though it was raining, we went for a walk.
Despite and in spite of can be followed by a noun just as in the following sentences.
Despite the rain, we went for a walk.
In spite of the rain, we went for a walk.
Those two phrases can also be followed by a subject and verb:
Despite the fact that it was raining, we went for a walk.
In spite of the fact that it was raining, we went for a walk.
Don’t let insurance companies PULL THE WOOL OVER YOUR EYES – ask for a list of all the hidden charges.
If you pull the wool over someone’s eyes you deceive the person.
PHRASAL VERBS CLOSE-UP
- When you GET AWAY WITH SOMETHING you do something illegal but you don’t get punished for it.
If I could get away with it, I wouldn’t pay any tax at all.
- When you COVER SOMETHING UP you hide the truth about something by not telling what you know or by preventing other people from telling what they know.
It was a real scandal, but the school tried to cover the whole thing up.
Complete the sentences with correct prepositions:
- They have repeatedly broken the law and got ……………. with it.
- Don’t pull the wool ……………. my eyes – I know what you’re trying to do.
- They knew they had done something wrong and lied to cover it ………..
HOW HONEST ARE YOU?
- You spot a wallet on the street with many hundred dollars banknotes in it. What do you do?
- Quickly put the wallet into your bag making sure no one is looking.
- If people are around, you search the owner reluctantly.
- How can you take someone else’s money? You start looking for the owner immediately.
- At the supermarket, when buying grocery, you notice that the cashier has given you a $100 note instead of a $10 note. What do you do?
- Pocket it and get out of the supermarket ASAP.
- Ponder for a while and then pocket it.
- Return it immediately.
- When leaving a car park, you accidentally bump into the car parked next to yours and damage it slightly. What do you do?
- Leave the car park as quickly as possible.
- Leave a note of apology on the windscreen with your name and address.
- Wait for the driver to come back.
- You are sitting in a very important exam. Do you copy from others if necessary?
- Even if I just want to verify the answers.
- Only if I don’t know the answers to some questions.
- I would never think of copying.
- It’s a beautiful sunny day and some of your friends have decided to go for a picnic. They ask you to go with them. What do you do?
- Call your boss and say you are ill.
- Call your boss and ask for a day off.
- Tell your friends you have to go to work.
Mostly As – you may consider yourself a sincere person but you take advantage of every opportunity to act dishonestly
Mostly Bs – you try to be honest but you do not always succeed
Mostly Cs – you are an honest and sincere person in every situation.
- reluctantly – unwillingly
- ASAP – as soon as possible
- to ponder – consider something, think about it
- to bump into something – knock against something with force
KEY TO EXERCISES
- False – they are honest and ethical
- False – it might be true or it might be a lie